On Freedom

On Freedom❰PDF / Epub❯ ✅ On Freedom Author Cass R. Sunstein – Heartforum.co.uk From New York Times bestselling author Cass Sunstein a brisk provocative book that shows what freedom really means and reuires todayIn this pathbreaking book New York Times bestselling author Cass Sun From New York Times bestselling author Cass Sunstein a brisk provocative book that shows what freedom really means and reuires todayIn this pathbreaking book New York Times bestselling author Cass Sunstein asks us to rethink freedom He shows that freedom of choice isn t nearly enough To be free we must also be able to navigate life People often need something like a GPS device to help them get where they want to go whether the issue involves health money jobs children or relationshipsIn both rich and poor countries citizens often have no idea how to get to their desired destination That is why they are unfree People also face serious problems of self control as many of them make decisions today that can make their lives worse tomorrow And in some cases we would be just as happy with other choices whether a different partner career or place to live which raises the difficult uestion of which outcome best promotes our well beingAccessible and lively and drawing on perspectives from the humanities religion and the arts as well as social science and the law On Freedom explores a crucial dimension of the human condition that philosophers and economists have long missed and shows what it would take to make freedom real.

Cass R Sunstein is an American legal scholar particularly in the fields of constitutional law administrative law environmental law and law and behavioral economics who currently is the Administrator of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs in the Obama administration For years Sunstein taught at the University of Chicago Law School where he continues to teach as the Harry Kalven Visiting Professor Sunstein is currently Professor of Law at Harvard Law School where he is on leave while working in the Obama administration.

Hardcover  ñ On Freedom PDF/EPUB Ä
  • Hardcover
  • 136 pages
  • On Freedom
  • Cass R. Sunstein
  • English
  • 15 September 2016
  • 0691191158

10 thoughts on “On Freedom

  1. Ryan Boissonneault says:

    In this short book of 136 pages, Cass Sunstein makes the case that freedom is enhanced by the intentional restriction or gentle manipulation of free choice Just as a GPS system guides you to the desired destination while preserving your freedom to take an alternate route, nudges can point you in the right behavioral direction while preserving your ability to choose otherwise.A simple example is automatic enrollment in a 401K retirement savings program This particular nudge is beneficial be In this short book of 136 pages, Cass Sunstein makes the case that freedom is enhanced by the intentional restriction or gentle manipulation of free choice Just as a GPS system guides you to the desired destination while preserving your freedom to take an alternate route, nudges can point you in the right behavioral direction while preserving your ability to choose otherwise.A simple example is automatic enrollment in a 401K retirement savings program This particular nudge is beneficial because it helps to overcome two common biases The present bias makes it difficult for people to save for the future, and the default option bias makes it difficult for people to make changes to the status quo These two biases, acting together, prevent people from enrolling in retirement plans that are clearly beneficial, and so the nudge of automatic enrollment solves the problem It enables people to make the right decision while still preserving their freedom to opt out In this way, a nudge can be said to enhance freedom because, without a behavioral GPS system, people have difficulty navigating to their desired destinations in life All nudges work in this way, and in many cases the result is clearly beneficial In the above example, if the person wants to save for the future, but has self control problems in regard to spending, they will probably appreciate the automatic enrollment In this case, the desired behavior is known by the chooser and the choice architect can easily identify the appropriate nudge.But problems arise when the determination of the appropriate behavior is debatable The ability of a choice architect to manipulate behavior to a desired end sounds a lot like coercion, and frankly, the idea of choice architects working for the government sounds like something out of a George Orwell novel However, as Sunstein explains, nudges are different from coercion because all nudges preserve freedom of choice Any decision will already include a default option, whether it is consciously designed or not in the example of 401K enrollment, non automatic enrollment is nudging people to not save for the future The nudge of automatic enrollment is simply presenting adesirable default option from the perspective of informed choosers Informed choosers are choosers that are not influenced by nudges They would enroll in 401K programs regardless of the default option, and so the appropriate nudge will align with these optimal choosers And again, if you don t like automatic enrollment in the 401K program, you can simply opt out On the other hand, the default option bias means that most people will not opt out, so in this way the choice architect does have quite a bit of influence depending on which behavior they re trying to promote This can get tricky depending on the situation If the chooser doesn t have a clear preference, how does the choice architect decide which default option to present For example, which is better, automatic enrollment in bronze medical plans, with low premiums and high deductibles, or gold medical plans, with high premiums and low deductibles How do you know which to choose Do you go by the preferences of the chooser before or after the nudge, since some people have a different preference after being nudged Or do you go by the option that promotes well being in general One approach is to abide by the choices of informed choosers who are not affected by nudges either way, as described above The default option is simply the option informed choosers would pick in any scenario This approach seems reasonable, but only when the choices do not result in general harm People, whether well informed or not, sometimes exhibit behavioral biases that result in less than optimal behavior, and the point of nudges in the first place is to enhance outcomes For example, informed choosers might bypass healthy foods placed at the front location of a buffet for better tasting but unhealthy foods In this case, it s probably not a good idea to move the healthy foods to the back, especially if people will eathealthy foods if they are placed up front This is reinforced by the fact that many people will claim, after the meal, that they were glad they skipped the fried food and chose the salad instead Their preferences before and after the meal changed, and it is their after meal preferences that should be prioritized because this preference results in better health As you can see, nudges are not always straightforward, and careful consideration must be given when navigating the fine line between promoting beneficial behavior and coercion, and even when determining what the beneficial behavior is in the first place Maybe eating better tasting foods isimportant than marginal gains in health Is it really moral for the choice architects to make this decision Despite the difficulties, in many cases it is clearly desirable to engineer choices in a way that nudges people towards better behavior, considering that you cannot avoid presenting a default option Some real life examples of beneficial nudges include the automatic enrollment in free lunch programs that provide millions of children with school lunch automatic voter registration that could mean greater turn out at the polls graphic images of lung disease on cigarette containers to discourage smoking and adding green arrows to the floor of a grocery store pointing to the produce section As for the book itself, it would have been nice to seereal world examples rather than strictly hypotheticals, and the ideas could have probably been condensed into a long form article rather than a book But for a quick read it does a decent job of raising consciousness to the neglected problem of navigability in discussions of freedom It raises the following difficult question in what sense can someone claim to be free if they don t know how to get to their desired destination, or if they cannot solve their problems of self control Rather than allowing people to fend for themselves unguided, the use of nudges, employed carefully and thoughtfully, can go a long way in improving people s lives while preserving freedom of choice

  2. Paul Froehlich says:

    Features in the environment affect decisions people make Businesses would not spend billions on advertising if it had no influence on consumer behavior Research shows that people cheat less on a paid task when they are asked to recall the Ten Commandments just before starting Such interventions don t force decisions on us, but we tend to respond differently in one circumstance than in another This short book is about nudges, which are deliberate interventions in the environment that steer Features in the environment affect decisions people make Businesses would not spend billions on advertising if it had no influence on consumer behavior Research shows that people cheat less on a paid task when they are asked to recall the Ten Commandments just before starting Such interventions don t force decisions on us, but we tend to respond differently in one circumstance than in another This short book is about nudges, which are deliberate interventions in the environment that steer people in certain directions, but that also preserve freedom of choice A PSA reminding viewers not to drink and drive is an example of a nudge Ditto for messages against smoking and distracted driving Unlike a legal mandate or ban, nudges leave people free to make their own decisions Those decisions may be influenced, however, by the choice architecture Though nudges happen all the time, they are controversial mainly when they come from government Cass Sunstein analyzes how to keep nudges compatible with choice so that people remain free to ignore the nudge.Where people are poorly informed, their free choice may harm them ditto where they are deceived, manipulated or enticed to make a decision that is against their interest The best way to nudge, Sunstein concludes, is with educative nudges that help people make informed choices When people are provided with accurate information they may lack, their abilty to make good decisions is enhanced.To those who dislike govenment nudges, Sunstein reminds them that nudges are inevitable If the law establishes contract, property, and tort law, it will be nudging, if only because it will set out default rules, which establish what happens if people do nothing Consequently, It is pointless to exclaim do not nudge Critics of government nudges are suspicious of government, and with good reason But their principal focus should be on mandates, bans, subsidies, and taxes, not nudges that preserve freedom of choice Government nudges should be subject to critical scrutiny, however Many nudges are designed to increase the likelihood that people s choices will improve their own well being In such cases, the central goal of nudging is to make choosers better off, as judged by themselves How should choice architects decide which choices to facilitate Sunstein advocates the Ben thamite approach architects should craft nudges that really do promote people s well being The difference between a nudge and manipulation is that the latter tricks people with deceptive advertising to serve the interest of the manipulator at the expense of its targets.A recent estimate is if one percent of Medicaid recipients stopped smoking, itwould save the government program 2.6 billion a year If nudges could do the job, it would be well worth doing, both to save money and to improve the health of the quitters Athorough source on this topic is in Sunstein s earlier book with Richard Thaler, NUDGE Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness 2008 On Freedom is a succinct and informative introduction to the topic

  3. Mohsin Bin Latheef says:

    A very short but insightful read into the freedom of choice Very engaging and often philosophical

  4. Katie Shultz says:

    On Freedom supplies a concise compendium of worthy considerations when applying behavioral nudges, to determine whether they may enhance or constrict freedom.

  5. Kent Winward says:

    Freedom is subject to choice architecture A little bit of a Nudge Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness redux Freedom is subject to choice architecture A little bit of a Nudge Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness redux

  6. General Kutuzov says:

    Neoliberalism is a failed ideology, but Cass Sunstein is one of its most articulate and able defenders.

  7. Lauren says:

    I read this shortly after finishing How to Be Free An Ancient Guide to the Stoic Life, and much as I respect Mr Sunstein, he can t compete with Epictetus and the stoics In comparison to How to be Free, which is about the same length, On Freedom feels narrow and constrained It s less about freedom, as most people would understand it, andan extension of Sunstein s research on nudges and encouraging people onto certain paths and decisions How to Be Free considers freedom as something tha I read this shortly after finishing How to Be Free An Ancient Guide to the Stoic Life, and much as I respect Mr Sunstein, he can t compete with Epictetus and the stoics In comparison to How to be Free, which is about the same length, On Freedom feels narrow and constrained It s less about freedom, as most people would understand it, andan extension of Sunstein s research on nudges and encouraging people onto certain paths and decisions How to Be Free considers freedom as something that arises from within a person an individual choice independent of circumstance Sunstein takes an oddly paternalist view that seems to suggest freedom is dictated by those who run a society I honestly don t know what I would have thought of this book if I hadn t read Epictetus first As I did, all I can say is If looking for a brief book on freedom, go read A.A Long s translation If looking for a book by Cass Sunstein, let me suggest On Rumors or Impeachment Not recommended

  8. Nicole says:

    Sunstein writes in such a clear and simple way, using mundane but relatable examples, so that readers can fully understand his argument which actually dives into a pretty philosophical area I can only wish that I can write like him I can t recommend this book enough to anyone curious about whether freedom of choice alone is the best way to maximize our well being, because Sunstein is very persuasive in revealing the gaps of neg freedom alone The GPS analogy is probably the best analogy I Sunstein writes in such a clear and simple way, using mundane but relatable examples, so that readers can fully understand his argument which actually dives into a pretty philosophical area I can only wish that I can write like him I can t recommend this book enough to anyone curious about whether freedom of choice alone is the best way to maximize our well being, because Sunstein is very persuasive in revealing the gaps of neg freedom alone The GPS analogy is probably the best analogy I ve ever come across, and the contrast between the final too quotes was so poignant and poetic, which I definitely did not expect

  9. Wu Shih says:

    Non una riflessione filosofica o politica solo in minima parte sulla realt bens una lunga disquisizione sul concetto di nudge coniato dall autore in un altro libro e di come possa essere applicato con successo alla societ contemporanea Il tutto sempre considerando lo sfondo giuridico costituzinale degli USA, non per niente Sunstein uno studioso di diritto legale americano.Per quanto mi riguarda trovo la teoria del nudge paternalistica e del tutto indatta a fornire ci di cui realme Non una riflessione filosofica o politica solo in minima parte sulla realt bens una lunga disquisizione sul concetto di nudge coniato dall autore in un altro libro e di come possa essere applicato con successo alla societ contemporanea Il tutto sempre considerando lo sfondo giuridico costituzinale degli USA, non per niente Sunstein uno studioso di diritto legale americano.Per quanto mi riguarda trovo la teoria del nudge paternalistica e del tutto indatta a fornire ci di cui realmente le persone avrebbero bisogno, ossia strumenti critici ed opportunit concrete

  10. Nicolo& says:

    Troppe pagine per esprimere un concetto semplice Spunti di riflessione abbastanza piatti e insipidi Temi interessanti soprattutto per i cosiddetti architetti della scelta e la progettazione di esperienze.

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