Estado y revolución



Estado y revoluciónNo, Democracy Is Not Identical With The Subordination Of The Minority To The Majority Democracy Is A State Which Recogizes The Subordination Of The Minority To The Majority, Ie An Organization For The Systematic Use Of Violence By One Class Against The Other, By One Section Of The Population Against Another

Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich 1870 1924 one of the leaders of the Bolshevik party since its formation in 1903 Led the Soviets to power in October, 1917 Elected to the head of the Soviet government until 1922, when he retired due to ill health.Lenin, born in 1870, was committed to revolutionary struggle from an early age his elder brother was hanged for the attempted assassination of Czar Alexander III In 1891 Lenin passed his Law exam with high honors, whereupon he took to representing the poorest peasantry in Samara After moving to St Petersburg in 1893, Lenin s experience with the oppression of the peasantry in Russia, coupled with the revolutionary teachings of G V Plekhanov, guided Lenin to meet with revolutionary groups In April 1895, his comrades helped send Lenin abroad to get up to speed with the revolutionary movement in Europe, and in particular, to meet the Emancipation of Labour Group, of which Plekhanov head After five months abroad, traveling from Switzerland to France to Germany, working at libraries and newspapers to make his way, Lenin returned to Russia, carrying a brief case with a false bottom, full of Marxist literature.On returning to Russia, Lenin and Martov created the League for the Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class, uniting the Marxist circles in Petrograd at the time The group supported strikes and union activity, distributed Marxist literature, and taught in workers education groups In St Petersburg Lenin begins a relationship with Nadezhda Krupskaya In the night of December 8, 1895, Lenin and the members of the party are arrested Lenin sentenced to 15 months in prison By 1897, when the prison sentence expired, the autocracy appended an additional three year sentence, due to Lenin s continual writing and organising while in prison Lenin is exiled to the village of Shushenskoye, in Siberia, where he becomes a leading member of the peasant community Krupskaya is soon also sent into exile for revolutionary activities, and together they work on party organising, the monumental work The Development of Capitalism in Russia, and the translating of Sidney and Beatrice Webb s Industrial Democracy.After his term of exile ends, Lenin emigrates to M nich, and is soon joined by Krupskaya Lenin creates Iskra, in efforts to bring together the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, which had been scattered after the police persecution of the first congress of the party in 1898 After leading the October Revolution, Lenin served as the first and only chairman of the R.S.F.S.R. In 1919 Lenin founded the Communist International In 1921 Lenin instituted the NEP During 1922 Lenin suffered a series of strokes that prevented active work in government While in his final year late 1922 to 1923 Lenin wrote his last articles where he outlined a programme to fight against the bureaucratization of the Commmunist Party and the Soviet state Lenin died on January 21, 1924, as a result of multiple strokes.

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10 thoughts on “Estado y revolución

  1. Stuart says:

    If you happen to get the version which has a forward by Richard Pipes, I strongly suggest reading the text of Vladimir Lenin first, maybe Google or Wikipedia some of the historical references, and draw your own conclusion Richard Pipes is your classical establishment propaganda clerk who s job is to help you see the text the way the State wants you to, that is, defanged of its revolutionary message.Pipes slides in his prejudice hidden by historical facts, intent on having you view this remark If you happen to get the version which has a forward by Richard Pipes, I strongly suggest reading the text of Vladimir Lenin first, maybe Google or Wikipedia some of the historical references, and draw your own conclusion Richard Pipes is your classical establishment propaganda clerk who s job is to help you see the text the way the State wants you to, that is, defanged of its revolutionary message.Pipes slides in his prejudice hidden by historical facts, intent on having you view this remarkable man dismissively as a rebel Lenin clearly shows that in order to bring about change we need a violent revolution of the working people proletariat against the slave owners bourgeois Lenin, who draws from Karl Marx and Fredric Engels shows the State for what it is A parasitic institution created by an oppressing class against its enemy the 99% You and I, the working class He explains why it is inevitable that this class conflict will lead to revolution And looking at current events as well as historical ones, the facts are undeniable He also shows the many ways the State tries to disable this prophetic voice, not unlike the forward by richard pipes talked about previously.Karl Marx was every bit an objective scientist, but truth is not wanted by those who lie Viva la revolution

  2. Abeer Abdullah says:

    Extremely thorough and well written, deals with the question of the state after the revolution, makes distinctions between communists, social democrats and anarchists Argues that anarchists and communists have the common goal of the abolition of the state, it is simply the methods that they disagree on Wonderful read, I learned a lot

  3. Jan-Maat says:

    There s an episode of The Simpsons in which an enraged gigantic Lenin smashes out of his tomb and starts stomping on people in Red Square shouting Crush Capitalism.As far as I can recall this is a surprisingly concise and accurate synopsis of State and Revolution so long as one substitutes the term bourgeoise for capitalism.Presumably in the political context of 1917 this pamphlet urging readers to crush the bourgeoise was an attempt to create clear blue water, or choppy red water, between There s an episode of The Simpsons in which an enraged gigantic Lenin smashes out of his tomb and starts stomping on people in Red Square shouting Crush Capitalism.As far as I can recall this is a surprisingly concise and accurate synopsis of State and Revolution so long as one substitutes the term bourgeoise for capitalism.Presumably in the political context of 1917 this pamphlet urging readers to crush the bourgeoise was an attempt to create clear blue water, or choppy red water, between the Bolsheviks and the better known Socialist Revolutionaries Given that the major problem that the Bolsheviks faced after their seizure of power was that the state had pretty much withered away and that they would have to spend the civil war years trying to rebuild government structures I doubt if this particular work is significant in Lenin s work as a whole

  4. Eric says:

    Being a dirty red, I found it amazing and surprising that I had never sat down with this piece I had read sections in Marxism classes years ago, but it was refreshing to get back into it Excellent A must.

  5. Michael says:

    This is the famous book in which Lenin asserted quoting Engels that the state will wither away under Communism, and which is therefore sometimes oddly accused of being utopian and anarchist It is neither of these, but it does require some work to parse out.Historically, this essay was written at the moment when Lenin was in exile in Switzerland, after the February, 1917 revolution and before the October revolution which ended with him and his party in power One would think that his min This is the famous book in which Lenin asserted quoting Engels that the state will wither away under Communism, and which is therefore sometimes oddly accused of being utopian and anarchist It is neither of these, but it does require some work to parse out.Historically, this essay was written at the moment when Lenin was in exile in Switzerland, after the February, 1917 revolution and before the October revolution which ended with him and his party in power One would think that his mind would be on Russia at a time like this, on its possibilities and how it should be handled There is little evidence of that here What seems to have preoccupied him at this particular moment is how he could defeat Karl Kautsky, the leading Social Democrat in Germany, in a debate regarding the correct interpretation of Marxist theory I d be tempted to interpret that as an attempt to distract himself during a period of depression, but I suspect that it s not that simple I suspect that Lenin really was crazy enough to believe that clarifying a minor point of theory by carefully studying the sacred words of Holy Saints Marx and Engels actually was the best way to prepare himself for the coming revolution That said, his arguments are still not terribly convincing, even if we take him at his word as a revolutionary and ignore the actual facts of history Much of his argument is based upon a highly selective reading of Marx s discussions of the Paris Commune which ignores his Marx s deep ambiguity towards the Commune and the communards ambiguity towards Marx He asserts multiple times the importance of the revolution in which the proletariat smashes the machinery of the state, and also significance of the opportunist Kautsky s willingness to simply take it over However, his idea of smashing the state remains obscure, since he admits that the proletariat will still need its apparatus for an undetermined period, and it seems that many of its previous functionaries will remain in place, albeit at a lowered wage and with the possibility of recall by the workers at any time The workers, of course, remains a code for the Vanguard Party which means that the dictatorship of the proletariat remains a dictatorship by an elite with the very police forces which had kept them in line previously.Lenin s centralism and authoritarianism remain clear from this book for readers to observe He takes every opportunity, in fact, to discredit anarchists, utopians, opportunists, and social chauvinists his term for Social Democrats who supported their governments in World War One The centralism, bureaucracy, and authoritarian imperialism of the former Soviet Union are established facts today which serve to discredit his belief in his own interpretation of theory This book is therefore useful mostly as a warning against hubris in revolutionaries and radicals today

  6. Steve says:

    First, allow me to say Lenin is a much, much better writer than Trotsky.Second, Lenin has provided in this work a roadmap to revolution And what a na ve roadmap it is in light of subsequent history Lenin believed in an evolution of the state into a system where the proletariat ruled for themselves and self policed their affairs How quickly that thought morphed into dictatorship.Lastly, I wonder very much what Lenin would have to say about the state of affairs in the United States today It ap First, allow me to say Lenin is a much, much better writer than Trotsky.Second, Lenin has provided in this work a roadmap to revolution And what a na ve roadmap it is in light of subsequent history Lenin believed in an evolution of the state into a system where the proletariat ruled for themselves and self policed their affairs How quickly that thought morphed into dictatorship.Lastly, I wonder very much what Lenin would have to say about the state of affairs in the United States today It appears a significant number, perhaps even a majority, have their basic necessities food, clothing and shelter met, and not much else Free from conscription and fed a steady diet of cheap, electronic entertainment, especially video games, drugs and pornography, the rebellious legions of Lenin s era appear pacified, though to be fair, today s legions are not suffering the type of injustices visited upon the Russian Tsarist peasantry All the while, wealth accumulates at seemingly ever increasing rates into the coffers of those statistically fortunate few If my simple assessment is correct, I d pay good money to have old Vladimir s reaction.Lenin provided a few noteworthy kernels, perhaps worth revisiting from time to time Quoting Engels Society, which will reorganize production on the basis of a free and equal association of the producers, will put the whole machinery of state where it will then belong into a museum of antiquities, by the side of the spinningwheel and the bronze axe Lenin The exploiting classes need political rule to maintain exploitation, i.e., in the selfish interests of an insignificant minority against the vast majority of all people The exploited classes need political rule in order to completely abolish all exploitation, i.e., in the interests of the vast majority of the people, and against the insignificant minority consisting of the modern slaveowners the landowners and capitalists.Once we have overthrown the capitalists, crushed the resistance of these exploiters with the iron hand of the armed workers, and smashed the bureaucratic machinery of the modern state, we shall have a splendidly equipped mechanism, freed from the parasite, a mechanism which can very well be set going by the united workers themselves, who will hire technicians, foremen and accountants, and pay them all, as indeed all state officials in general, workmen s wages Here is a concrete, practical task which can immediately be fulfilled in relation to all trusts, a task whose fulfilment will rid the working people of exploitation, a task which takes account of what the Commune had already begun to practice particularly in building up the state.To organize the whole economy on the lines of the postal service so that the technicians, foremen and accountants, as well as all officials, shall receive salaries no higher than a workman s wage, all under the control and leadership of the armed proletariat that is our immediate aim This is what will bring about the abolition of parliamentarism and the preservation of representative institutions This is what will rid the laboring classes of the bourgeoisie s prostitution of these institutions Quoting Engels A revolution is certainly the most authoritarian thing there is it is an act whereby one part of the population imposes its will upon the other part by means of rifles, bayonets and cannon, all of which are highly authoritarian means And the victorious party must maintain its rule by means of the terror which its arms inspire in the reactionaries Lenin And if careerism is to be abolished completely, it must be made impossible for honorable though profitless posts in the Civil Service to be used as a springboard to highly lucrative posts in banks or joint stock companies, as constantly happens in all the freest capitalist countries Democracy for an insignificant minority, democracy for the rich that is the democracy of capitalist society Marx grasped this essence of capitalist democracy splendidly when, in analyzing the experience of the Commune, he said that the oppressed are allowed once every few years to decide which particular representatives of the oppressing class shall represent and repress them in parliament Lastly, only communism makes the state absolutely unnecessary, for there is nobody to be suppressed nobody in the sense of a class, of a systematic struggle against a definite section of the population We are not utopians, and do not in the least deny the possibility and inevitability of excesses on the part of individual persons, or the need to stop such excesses In the first place, however, no special machine, no special apparatus of suppression, is needed for this this will be done by the armed people themselves, as simply and as readily as any crowd of civilized people, even in modern society, interferes to put a stop to a scuffle or to prevent a woman from being assaulted And, secondly, we know that the fundamental social cause of excesses, which consist in the violation of the rules of social intercourse, is the exploitation of the people, their want and their poverty With the removal of this chief cause, excesses will inevitably begin to wither away We do not know how quickly and in what succession, but we do know they will wither away With their withering away the state will also wither away So long as the state exists there is no freedom When there is freedom, there will be no state We, however, shall break with the opportunists and the entire class conscious proletariat will be with us in the fight not to shift the balance of forces, but to overthrow the bourgeoisie, to destroy bourgeois parliamentarism, for a democratic republic after the type of the Commune, or a republic of Soviets of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, for the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat

  7. Kevin says:

    And the State withers away how Preamble 1 I recognize the wealth of scholarship and debates over Lenin, Leninism, Marxism, Marxism Leninism, Communism, the Russian Revolution, the USSR, etc 2 However, I still intend to apply my differing background to engage with this work by Lenin I ll be revisiting this for sure The Good Why do we bother with social theory, as opposed to facts True, specific historical accounts and number crunching have the appeal of empirical evidence However, And the State withers away how Preamble 1 I recognize the wealth of scholarship and debates over Lenin, Leninism, Marxism, Marxism Leninism, Communism, the Russian Revolution, the USSR, etc 2 However, I still intend to apply my differing background to engage with this work by Lenin I ll be revisiting this for sure The Good Why do we bother with social theory, as opposed to facts True, specific historical accounts and number crunching have the appeal of empirical evidence However, to try and explain causation, you plunge headfirst into ideology even if you wear a blindfold emblazoned with REASON or LOGIC or HUMAN NATURE Big picture social narratives often require tapestries of theoretic syntheses I enjoyed the direction of Lenin s censored Imperialism The Highest Stage of Capitalism 1916 This book 1917 tackles the pressing questions over the roles of the State and Revolution, with many references to Marx Engels esp the evolution of their ideas in response to the Revolutions of 1848 and 1871 Paris Commune Highlights 1 The State is the bourgeoisie s tool to manage the contradictions of class antagonism often through avoidance 2 Thus, the State embodies class conflict it alone cannot resolve its own contradictions disputing petty bourgeois reformists opportunist claims.3 Re iteration of not just class struggle which was obvious to everyone , but the Marxist view of class being bound to historical phases in the development of production, and of the proletariat s historical role.4 A proletarian revolution is required to take State power bourgeois State abolished, see below and use the new proletarian State to force the abolition of class antagonism, i.e suppress bourgeois counterrevolution After which, the proletarian State withers away 5 Anarchist s direct abolition of the State But how would you defend against the superior resources of the counter revolution 6 Liberal democracy This is still within the bourgeois State, i.e class conflict that forces wage slavery Tactics of the proletarian revolution to abolish the bourgeois State, i.e replace bourgeois State democracy with proletariat democracy with a note that this is a transition, unlike anarchist abolition of State 1 Replace standing army with armed people of the communes.2 All public officials including police to be elected and subject to public recall.3 Bring public officials status wages to match workers.4 Commune working body, taking advantage of monopolistic social management Marxist centralism as opposed to anarchist federalism while replacing Parliamentary bureaucracy The Questionable Obviously, there are many points of contention from the above, but this is a worthy primer to start from and return to test ideas Also interesting considering the evolution of Lenin s ideas in the changing historical context, and its influence not just in the West but also in the global south the fabulous Vijay Prashad talking about his new book Red Star Over the Third World here

  8. Hayden Kesterson says:

    I understand the ML viewpoint a lot better now I am struck by the amount of inevitability that Lenin sees in the transition from the dictatorship of the proletariate the first stage of communism, socialism to a stateless society the second stage of communism, true communism How he arrives a this viewpoint is made clear in this book, but thinking of the history of Russia and the international forces that might be able to cripple any revolutionary movement, perhaps this inevitability needs I understand the ML viewpoint a lot better now I am struck by the amount of inevitability that Lenin sees in the transition from the dictatorship of the proletariate the first stage of communism, socialism to a stateless society the second stage of communism, true communism How he arrives a this viewpoint is made clear in this book, but thinking of the history of Russia and the international forces that might be able to cripple any revolutionary movement, perhaps this inevitability needs to be redressed

  9. Lynn Beyrouthy says:

    The February Revolution of 1917 goaded the fall of the Romanov dynasty when tsar Nicholas II abdicated, and things started to look surprisingly auspicious for Vladimir Ilich Lenin and his Bolshevik party However, the Provisional Government of Georgi Lvov, in the midst of the colossal military turmoil of World War I, wasn t particularly sympathetic of Lenin s anti war stance After his arrival in Petrograd to be renamed after him Leningrad , Lenin was falsely accused of being a German agent and The February Revolution of 1917 goaded the fall of the Romanov dynasty when tsar Nicholas II abdicated, and things started to look surprisingly auspicious for Vladimir Ilich Lenin and his Bolshevik party However, the Provisional Government of Georgi Lvov, in the midst of the colossal military turmoil of World War I, wasn t particularly sympathetic of Lenin s anti war stance After his arrival in Petrograd to be renamed after him Leningrad , Lenin was falsely accused of being a German agent and after the issuance of a warrant for his arrest, he was forced to flee to Sestroretsk then to Finland That s where he wrote his vehement communist rant The State and Revolution.Continuously referring to Marx and Engels and commenting on famous passages extracted from their work, Lenin sought to deliver a pure and untainted account of Marxist thought, since he was enraged at the petty bourgeois democrats like Kautsky, Plekhanov and Bernstein and he kept reiterating the need to purge Marxism of its distortions glad he didn t live to see the brutality of Stalinism Beyond that, he elaborated on ideas of the state, social classes, The Paris Commune of 1871, the polemic with anarchists, democracy and most importantly, the withering away of the state and the dictatorship of the proletariat.My notes go much further than that but I ll limit my review to titles and generalities.Very interesting read for anyone interested in communism, political science and wanting to explore Lenin s ideas just before the October Revolution He ends his book saying that it s a muchfulfilling experience to carry out and live the proletarian revolution than to write about it

  10. Theodora says:

    Lenin was the one to put the gulag system in place, not Stalin.

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